Latest Publications

Description Category Date Author
The New Zealand Structural Steelwork Specification in Compliance with AS/NZS 5131: Key Elements to Managing the Compliance of Fabricated Structural Steelwork

The Structural Steelwork – Fabrication and Erection standard AS/NZS 5131 (SA/SNZ, 2016c), is cited as an acceptable standard for demonstrating compliance with the Building Code. This standard published in 2016, was developed in respo...

FAB2001.pdf
Fabrication 18/02/2019 Alistair Fussell, Kevin Cowie, Michail Karpenko
Practice Note on the Sourcing of Compliant High Strength Structural Bolts

The New Zealand Steel Structures Standard states that high strength structural bolts shall be supplied to AS/NZS 1252.  This standard underwent a major revision and was published on 23rd December 2016. The major technical changes incor...

MAT1010.pdf
Materials 20/03/2018 Kevin Cowie, Stephen Hicks, Raed El Sarraf
Practice Note on the Sourcing of Threaded Rod Used for Foundation Bolts

Threaded bars are commonly used in the structural engineering industry. It is used as replacement for long bolts as well as for concrete anchors and foundation bolts.  This product is not covered under New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 1252...

MAT1011.pdf
Materials 20/02/2018 Kevin Cowie, Alistair Fussell
Basis for and Implications of Key Changes to 2016 Structural Steel Product Standards

In April 2016, the suite of AS/NZS structural steel product standards were republished (AS/NZS 1163, 3678, 3679.1-2) (SA/NZS, 2016). This paper provides a summary of the key changes, the basis for these changes and interim recommendations u...

MAT1009 .pdf
Materials 01/03/2017 Alistair Fussell, Kevin Cowie, Stephen Hicks, Michail Karpenko
Checklist for Imported Structural Steelwork

The globalisation of the structural steel supply chain has sparked concern over the quality of fabricated steelwork in New Zealand building projects when sourced from low-cost countries. Demonstrating compliance of imported material with th...

QLT1002.pdf
Quality 28/06/2016 Alistair Fussell, Kevin Cowie, Dr Michail Karpenko, Dr Stephen Hicks
Ensuring Compliance of Structural Steelwork – Regardless of Origin

This article was first published in SESOC Journal Volume 29 No 1 April 2016. The globalisation of the structural steel supply chain has sparked concern over the quality of fabricated steelwork in New Zealand building projects when source...

QLT1001.pdf
Quality 28/06/2016 Alistair Fussell, Kevin Cowie, Dr Stephen Hicks, Dr Michail Karpenko
Welding to AS/NZS 1554.1 of Boron Containing Steel

Recent reports indicate that some imported steel may show elevated levels of boron; traditionally steel in Australia and New Zealand has been made without boron additions.  The welding requirements of AS/NZS 1554 have been established ...

WEL1003.pdf
Welding 02/05/2016 Dr Michail Karpenko, Dr Stephen Hicks, Alistair Fussell
Changes to specifying inorganic zinc silicates to AS/NZS 2312

Australian/ New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 2312 Guide to the protection of structural steel against atmospheric corrosion by the use of protective coatings provides guidelines for selection and specification of coating systems for co...

CTG1009.pdf
Coatings 29/04/2016 Kevin Cowie
AS/NZS 5131 – Why Another Fabrication and Erection Standard?

1.0 Introduction  In New Zealand we have the undesirable situation of an aged Structural Steel standard by international standards and we also have two sets of standards provisions that address the minimum requirements for the fabrica...

GEN2003.pdf
General 17/04/2016 Alistair Fussell; Dr Stephen Hicks; Dr Michail Karpenko
Paint Coating Selection and Specification: Changes to AS/NZS 2312

Australian/ New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 2312 Guide to the protection of structural steel against atmospheric corrosion by the use of protective coatings provides guidelines for selection and specification of coating systems for corrosion pr...

CTG1008.pdf
Coatings 23/02/2016 Kevin Cowie
Specifying Impact Toughness of Steel Plates for End Plate Connections in Seismic Lateral Resisting Frames

Structures designed to the Steel Structures Standard, NZS 3404, are required to be able to resist collapse under a maximum considered earthquake as directed by the Loadings Standard, NZS 1170.5. Brittle systems are not permitted. The nature...

MAT1008.pdf
Materials 27/02/2015 Kevin Cowie; Alistair Fussell
Bolted Column Splices with Minor Axis Bending

In multistory construction columns splices are provided for convenience of fabrication, transport and erection. If required the splices are located just above the floor level, which enables easy access to the joint.   There are two t...

CON3102.pdf
Connections 19/02/2015 Zahid Hamid; Kevin Cowie
Heat Input Limits of Welding Consumables for Earthquake Resisting Structures

The Steel Structures Standard, NZS 3404, references the AS/NZS 1554 suite of standards for compliance of welding consumables. NZS 3404 includes additional requirements limiting the heat input in the deposited weld metal for welds subject to...

WEL3001.pdf
Welding 24/04/2014 Alan McClintock; Kevin Cowie
Development and Research of Eccentrically Braced Frames with Replaceable Active Links

Ductile eccentrically braced frames designed in accordance with the New Zealand Steel Structures Standard, NZS 3404, provide life safety during a design level or greater earthquake; however, the eccentrically braced frame active link may su...

EQK1005.pdf
Earthquake 24/04/2014 Alistair Fussell; Kevin Cowie; Charles Clifton; Nandor Mago
Welding Consumables and Design of Welds

The Steel Structures Standard, NZS 3404, references the AS/NZS 1554 suite of standards for compliance of welding consumables. New editions of the AS/NZS 1554 suite of welding Standards have recently been published and these refer to newly ...

WEL1002.pdf
Welding 28/02/2014 Kevin Cowie; Alan McClintock
Specifying Steel for Seismic Lateral Resisting Frames

There are three common seismic frame types used in New Zealand. These are the eccentrically braced frame (EBF), concentrically braced frame (CBF) and moment resisting frame (MRF). See figure 1. All steel seismic-resisting systems are req...

MAT1007.pdf
Materials 27/02/2014 Kevin Cowie; Alistair Fussell
Web Side Plate Rotation Capacity

The Steel Construction New Zealand publication Steel Connect (SCNZ 14.1 and SCNZ 14.2) provides structural engineers with a rapid and cost-effective way to specify the majority of structural steelwork connections, in accordance with accepte...

CON1201.pdf
Connections 18/12/2013 Kevin Cowie; Alistair Fussell
Eccentrically Braced Frames Lateral Restraint of Link Bottom Flange

Eccentrically braced frames are required to be laterally restrained at both the top and bottom of the active link member ends to ensure reliable performance in a seismic event. There are occasions when direct lateral restraint to the botto...

EQK1009.pdf
Earthquake 18/12/2013 Kevin Cowie; Alistair Fussell; Charles Clifton
Design of the Linked Column Frame Structural System - A New Zealand Application

The Link Column Frame (LCF) system is a brace free hybrid system combining proven seismic load resisting technology; eccentrically braced frames (EBF) with removable links and moment resisting frames (MRF). It was developed to meet the requ...

EQK1010.pdf
Earthquake 04/06/2013 Alistair Fussell, Peter Dusicka, Charles Clifton, Martin Wong
Composite Steel Beam Behaviour with Precast Rib Flooring

Floors consisting of precast ribs supported on structural steel beams and in situ structural topping are a common form of composite floor construction. In this article guidance is given on the modifications required to previously published ...

CMP1002rev1.pdf
Composite 14/05/2013 Kevin Cowie, Stephen Hicks, Alistair Fussell
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Welded I Sections Seismic Category Classification

Written by Kevin Cowie; Alistair Fussell on December 22nd, 2009.      0 comments

All steel members which form part of a seismic resisting frame are classified into one of 4 categories for the purpose of seismic design. Category 1 members are capable of sustaining high displacement ductility demands. Category 2 members are capable of sustaining low ductility demands. Category 3 members are capable of developing their nominal section capacity where required to in bending. Category 4 members need not be designed to sustain any displacement ductility demand. Limits are placed on member section geometry for the various categories and this is found in section 12.5 of the Steel Structures Standard (SNZ, 2007). Previous tables have been developed classifying I section members into the appropriate categories (Feeney, 1993). These tables were developed based on the 1992 version of the Steel Structures Standard . Hot rolled steel sections classified were grades 250 and 350. Welded sections classified were limited to WB and WC sections. This article updates the Member ductility category of I sections for seismic design tables for Grade 300 welded sections in accordance with the latest Steel Structures Standard (SNZ, 2007).
Topics: Coating Member Design
 

Hot Rolled I Sections Seismic Category Classification

Written by Kevin Cowie; Alistair Fussell on December 22nd, 2009.      0 comments

All steel members which form part of a seismic resisting frame are classified into one of 4 categories for the purpose of seismic design. Category 1 members are capable of sustaining high displacement ductility demands. Category 2 members are capable of sustaining low ductility demands. Category 3 members are capable of developing their nominal section capacity where required to in bending. Category 4 members need not be designed to sustain any displacement ductility demand. Limits are placed on member section geometry for the various categories and this is found in section 12.5 of the Steel Structures Standard (SNZ, 2007). Previous tables have been developed classifying I section members into the appropriate categories (Feeney, 1993). These tables were developed based on the 1992 version of the Steel Structures Standard . Hot rolled steel sections classified were grades 250 and 350. Welded sections classified were limited to WB and WC sections. This article updates the Member ductility category of I sections for seismic design tables for Grade 300 hot rolled sections in accordance with the latest Steel Structures Standard (SNZ, 2007).
Topics: Coating Member Design
 

Lateral Restraint of Yielding Regions in Columns and Beams in Multi-Storey Buildings

Written by Charles Clifton on December 16th, 2009.      0 comments

This article provides general guidance on applying the lateral restraint provisions for yielding regions given in Clause 12.6.2 of NZS3404 (SNZ, 2007) to columns and beams of multi-storey buildings. It includes simplification of those provisions which can be made when designing these types of member.
Topics: Coating Member Design
 

Steel Performance in the Padang Earthquake 2009

Written by Clark Hyland & Scott Miller on October 30th, 2009.      0 comments

A M7.6 earthquake, with depth 80 km, occurred near Padang City, Sumatra, Indonesia on September 30, 2009. The overwhelming majority of the buildings damaged were reinforced concrete frames with unreinforced brick infill panels, reflecting the popularity of this form of construction in the affected area. However some important lessons can be learned from observations of the performance of the few steel structures affected. Two of these collapsed dramatically, tragically killing over 200 people.
Topics: Coating Earthquake
 

Transverse Slotted Holes Design Bearing Strength

Written by Kevin Cowie on October 27th, 2009.      0 comments

No distinction is made in the Steel Structures Standard NZS 3404 (SNZ, 2007) between the design ply bearing capacity for a long slotted hole in which the slot is perpendicular to the direction of the bearing load and a standard circular hole. See figure 1. While the presence of a slotted hole does not reduce ply bearing capacity based on strength, there is increased hole elongation for a given bolt shear force compared to a standard hole. In this article, a design equation based on North American practice is presented for design ply bearing capacity limited by hole elongation. This equation will be applicable for situations such as seismic loading, where increased hole elongation associated with slotted holes loaded transverse to the direction of the bearing load is undesirable.
Topics: Coating Connections
 

Steel Corrosion Rates in Water and Soil

Written by Kevin Cowie on October 20th, 2009.      0 comments

Guidance on typical corrosion steel rates in water and soil for design use is provided in the recently published NZS3404.1 Steel Structures Standard - Materials, Fabrication, and Construction (SNZ,2009). The design rates given are those to be used for long-term exposure, i.e. where the designer is calculating a required sacrificial thickness of steel in order to meet the specified design life. This article covers the background to the corrosion rates provided in NZS 3404.1.
Topics: Coating Coatings
 

Semi-Rigid Sliding Hinge Joint

Written by Kevin Cowie on August 26th, 2009.      0 comments

The Sliding Hinge Joint (SHJ) is a new semi-rigid joint system developed for moment resisting steel frames. It has the ability to remain rigid under in-service conditions or ultimate state wind loading, and to rotate under severe earthquake loadings, returning to the rigid state when the severe earthquake stops. The joint is designed and detailed such that there is negligible damage to the frame or slabs. The joint has a similar cost to conventional construction.
Topics: Coating Connections
 

CHS Collar Joints

Written by Kevin Cowie on August 26th, 2009.      0 comments

This article presents a method for designing the collar joints of a moment connection between an I section beam and a circular hollow section (CHS) column. The procedure is developed principally for the semi-rigid flange bolted joint (FBJ). However the principles can be applied in general to other types of connections. The design procedure has been taken and slightly modified from (Clifton, 2005).
Topics: Coating Connections
 

Moment End Plate - Column Side

Written by Kevin Cowie on August 26th, 2009.      0 comments

Standard moment end plate connections (MEP) have been developed by Steel Construction New Zealand Inc. The design procedures are presented in Structural Steelwork Connections Guide: Design Procedures, SCNZ 14- 1:2007 (Hyland et al, 2008). The connection details are given in table form in SCNZ 14-2:2007 (Hyland et al, 2008). However these publications only provide details for the beam side of the MEP connection. The column side aspects are not covered and reference is given to guidance in HERA Report R4-142:2007 (Clifton et al, 2007). This article updates the guidance and design example given in this publication and presents the design procedure consistent with the SCNZ publications. Development of software based on these procedures is being developed and this is briefly discussed.
Topics: Coating Connections
 

Maximum Spacing of Thermal Movement Joints

Written by Kevin Cowie on July 3rd, 2009.      0 comments

Although buildings are often constructed using flexible materials, roof and structural expansion joints are required when plan dimensions are large. The maximum distance between expansion joints is dependent upon many variables, including ambient temperature during construction and the expected temperature range during the lifetime of the building. This article summarises North American practice with respect to spacing of thermal movement joints (AISC, 2003). This is based upon Federal Construction Council Technical Report No 65: Expansion Joints in Buildings and recommendations by (Fisher, 2005).
Topics: Coating General
 

Properties and Assessment of Historical Structural Steelwork

Written by Kevin Cowie on July 3rd, 2009.      0 comments

The refurbishment or ‘adaptive re-use’ of existing buildings currently forms a significant part of the workload for many architects and engineers. The structural engineer will be required to make an appraisal of the existing steelwork in these buildings. This article provides sources of information for identifying the properties and making an assessment of the historical structural steelwork.
Topics: Coating Materials
 

Sleeved Holding Down Bolts

Written by Kevin Cowie on June 29th, 2009.      0 comments

One of the greatest problems faced by a steel erector on site is inaccuracy in the locations of the anchor bolts. Precision surveying equipment and techniques are required to accurately set out solidly cast-in anchor bolts in accordance with NZS 3404.1. The required setting out tolerances of these fixed holding down bolts is very tight. To provide increased tolerance and some allowance for site adjustment, sleeved anchor bolts can be used. See Figure 1. These allow some adjustment of bolt positioning after concreting. This article describes the requirements for holding down bolts sleeves.
Topics: Coating Erection & Construction
 

An Introduction to Network Arch Bridges

Written by Michael Chan & Raed El Sarraf on April 29th, 2009.      0 comments

This article provides an introduction to network arch bridges and is an excerpt from (Chan and Romanes 2008).
Topics: Coating Bridges
 

Extending High Tensile Anchor Rods with Couplers

Written by Kevin Cowie on April 27th, 2009.      0 comments

There are instances where high tensile anchor rods have been cast in with insufficient projection above the concrete. Extending the anchor rods by welding is generally not permitted. One method to extend the anchor rod is by the use of a threaded coupler. Checks are required to ensure that stripping of the threads and also tensile fracture of the coupler does not occur prior to the tensile fracture of the connected threaded rods. This article presents a method for these checks.
Topics: Coating Erection & Construction
 

Fire Rating Questioned on Post Tensioned and Prestressed Concrete Slabs

Written by Kevin Cowie on April 21st, 2009.      0 comments

A recent United Kingdom fire test of a post tensioned slab designed for a 2 hour fire rating achieved only a 66 minute fire resistance. Spalling began after 11 minutes and after 20 minutes spalling exposed the tensioning ducts which resulted in a significant loss of strand strength. While care must be taken in extrapolating test results from one form of construction to another without assessing differences in thermal and restraint conditions (Kelly, Purkiss, 2008), it also raises concern over the elevated temperature performance of prestressed concrete floor systems used in New Zealand. Factors which affect spalling at elevated temperatures are concrete moisture content, permeability and the presence of compressive stresses. (Kelly, Purkiss, 2008) The prestressed products in New Zealand have a higher strength of concrete than the concrete strength of the post tensioned slab in the fire test. Concrete permeability deceases with an increase in concrete strength. Therefore high strength concrete is more susceptible to spalling at elevated temperatures. Further investigation is required to allay these concerns. The fire test is presented in an article on ‘Reinforced concrete structures in fire: A review of current rules’ by Fergal Kelly from Peter Brett Associates and John Purkiss formally of Aston University and was published in The Structural Engineer magazine on 7th October 2008. This article describes the fire test carried out on the post-tensioned concrete slab, the conclusions of the test and subsequent UK discussions following the fire test.
Topics: Coating Fire
 
   
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