Latest Publications

Description Category Date Author
Practice Note on the Sourcing of Compliant High Strength Structural Bolts

The New Zealand Steel Structures Standard states that high strength structural bolts shall be supplied to AS/NZS 1252.  This standard underwent a major revision and was published on 23rd December 2016. The major technical changes incor...

MAT1010.pdf
Materials 20/03/2018 Kevin Cowie, Stephen Hicks, Raed El Sarraf
Practice Note on the Sourcing of Threaded Rod Used for Foundation Bolts

Threaded bars are commonly used in the structural engineering industry. It is used as replacement for long bolts as well as for concrete anchors and foundation bolts.  This product is not covered under New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 1252...

MAT1011.pdf
Materials 20/02/2018 Kevin Cowie, Alistair Fussell
Specifying Impact Toughness of Steel Plates for End Plate Connections in Seismic Lateral Resisting Frames

Structures designed to the Steel Structures Standard, NZS 3404, are required to be able to resist collapse under a maximum considered earthquake as directed by the Loadings Standard, NZS 1170.5. Brittle systems are not permitted. The nature...

MAT1008.pdf
Materials 27/02/2015 Kevin Cowie; Alistair Fussell
Specifying Steel for Seismic Lateral Resisting Frames

There are three common seismic frame types used in New Zealand. These are the eccentrically braced frame (EBF), concentrically braced frame (CBF) and moment resisting frame (MRF). See figure 1. All steel seismic-resisting systems are req...

MAT1007.pdf
Materials 27/02/2014 Kevin Cowie; Alistair Fussell
Steel Plate Availability in New Zealand

Bridge construction is a demanding application typically requiring plate welded sections. Material optimisation for welded plate sections involves a careful matching of strength requirements with available plate sizes to minimise waste and ...

MAT1006.pdf
Materials 21/12/2010 Kevin Cowie
Properties and Assessment of Historical Structural Steelwork

The refurbishment or ‘adaptive re-use’ of existing buildings currently forms a significant part of the workload for many architects and engineers. The structural engineer will be required to make an app...

MAT1005.pdf
Materials 03/07/2009 Kevin Cowie
Performance of the Mercer Off-Ramp Weathering Steel

This article provides an update on the corrosion performance of the State Highway 1 Mercer weathering steel off-ramp, following an inspection by Japanese expert Dr. Makoto Ohya, two and half years after construction.

MAT2001.pdf
Materials 05/02/2009 Raed El Sarraf; Clark Hyland
New Performance Requirements for Seismic Steel

Amendment 2 of the Steel Structures Standard NZS 3404:1997 released in October 2007 (SNZ, 2007) sets new requirements for steel materials and welding of seismic resisting steelwork that is required to sustain significant plastic deformation...

MAT1002.pdf
Materials 01/05/2008 Clark Hyland
Non-Standard Plate and Large Hot Rolled Beam Availability

Bridge construction is a demanding application requiring heavy hot rolled and plate welded sections. These types of sections often fall outside the range of standard sections and plates held by local steel distributors. To aid bridge design...

MAT1004.pdf
Materials 27/11/2007 Allistair Fussel
Design Yield Stress vs Mill Certificate Yield Stress

Occasionally the question is asked as to whether a steel that has been certified to a lower steel supply grade classification eg. G250 can be accepted as complying with a higher grade such as G300 on the basis that the Mill Test Certificate...

MAT1001.pdf
Materials 27/11/2007 Clark Hyland
Steel Availability in New Zealand

There are three main purchase options for structural steel sections and plates in the New Zealand market depending on the project scale. The first and second ex - stock supply options are normally more costly than the third indent supply op...

MAT1003.pdf
Materials 20/11/2007 Clark Hyland
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Practice Note on the Sourcing of Compliant High Strength Structural Bolts

Written by Kevin Cowie, Stephen Hicks, Raed El Sarraf on March 20th, 2018.      0 comments

The New Zealand Steel Structures Standard states that high strength structural bolts shall be supplied to AS/NZS 1252.  This standard underwent a major revision and was published on 23rd December 2016. The major technical changes incorporated in the new edition relate to updated testing and conformity requirements, the inclusion of the nominated European standard EN 14399-3 8.8 HR bolt as a “Deemed to satisfy” alternative and an additional European EN 14399-3 high tensile grade 10.9 HR.

A significant change to AS/NZS 1252 has been the creation of a new Part 2, title “Verification testing for bolt assemblies’. This represents a restricted form of third party conformity assessment, to provide confidence in products manufactured to AS/NZS 1252.1.

Topics: Coating Materials
 

Practice Note on the Sourcing of Threaded Rod Used for Foundation Bolts

Written by Kevin Cowie, Alistair Fussell on February 20th, 2018.      0 comments

Threaded bars are commonly used in the structural engineering industry. It is used as replacement for long bolts as well as for concrete anchors and foundation bolts.  This product is not covered under New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 1252, ‘High strength steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for structural engineering’. This article is intended to provide information on the appropriate standard to specify for threaded rods used for foundation bolts and the recommended verification testing.

Topics: Coating Materials
 

Specifying Impact Toughness of Steel Plates for End Plate Connections in Seismic Lateral Resisting Frames

Written by Kevin Cowie; Alistair Fussell on February 27th, 2015.      0 comments

Structures designed to the Steel Structures Standard, NZS 3404, are required to be able to resist collapse under a maximum considered earthquake as directed by the Loadings Standard, NZS 1170.5. Brittle systems are not permitted. The nature of steel material is that it always contains some imperfections, albeit of very small size. When subject to tensile stress these imperfections (similar to very small cracks) tend to open. If the steel is insufficiently tough, the 'crack' propagates rapidly, without plastic deformation, and failure may result. This is called 'brittle fracture', and is of particular concern because of the sudden nature of failure. The toughness of the steel, and its ability to resist this behaviour, decreases as the temperature decreases. In addition, the toughness required, at any given temperature, increases with the thickness of the material. A convenient measure of toughness is the Charpy V-notch impact test. This test measures the impact energy (in Joules) required to break a small, notched specimen by a single impact blow from a pendulum. The tests are carried out with the specimens at specified (low) temperatures, and the steel material standards specify the required minimum impact energy values for different grades.
Topics: Coating Materials
 

Specifying Steel for Seismic Lateral Resisting Frames

Written by Kevin Cowie; Alistair Fussell on February 27th, 2014.      0 comments

There are three common seismic frame types used in New Zealand. These are the eccentrically braced frame (EBF), concentrically braced frame (CBF) and moment resisting frame (MRF). See figure 1. All steel seismic-resisting systems are required to be classified into one of four categories for seismic design in accordance with the Steel Structures Standard, NZS 3404. The category of seismic frame designed will determine the displacement demand on an individual member of that seismic frame. Members of seismic frames are classified into 4 categories in the same manner as for the seismic resisting frame. Material requirements specified in NZS 3404 become more stringent for member categories associated with higher displacement demand. The identification of the seismic member categories and the subsequent specification of appropriate steel grades in the contract documents, is the responsibility of the design engineer. This article identifies what the typical seismic member categories are for three common seismic frame types used in New Zealand and identifies complying material types for these seismic member categories.
Topics: Coating Materials
 

Steel Plate Availability in New Zealand

Written by Kevin Cowie on December 21st, 2010.      0 comments

Bridge construction is a demanding application typically requiring plate welded sections. Material optimisation for welded plate sections involves a careful matching of strength requirements with available plate sizes to minimise waste and welding requirements and to reduce transportation costs. This optimisation process is an iterative one. Typically a preliminary design is undertaken to determine the required plate thicknesses, dimensions and splice locations. Once material availability has been confirmed with a steel distributor, the designer continues to refine the design to suit actual plate availability and supply lead-times. To minimise the number of iterations in this process, it is helpful to have a feel for the range of plate sizes produced by steel mills. Typically local steel distributors will stock only a limited range of commonly used standard sheet sizes, however most are willing to explore stock options for special projects. 10mm loss of plate width should be allowed for in the cutting process.
Topics: Coating Materials
 

Properties and Assessment of Historical Structural Steelwork

Written by Kevin Cowie on July 3rd, 2009.      0 comments

The refurbishment or ‘adaptive re-use’ of existing buildings currently forms a significant part of the workload for many architects and engineers. The structural engineer will be required to make an appraisal of the existing steelwork in these buildings. This article provides sources of information for identifying the properties and making an assessment of the historical structural steelwork.
Topics: Coating Materials
 

Performance of the Mercer Off-Ramp Weathering Steel

Written by Raed El Sarraf; Clark Hyland on February 5th, 2009.      0 comments

This article provides an update on the corrosion performance of the State Highway 1 Mercer weathering steel off-ramp, following an inspection by Japanese expert Dr. Makoto Ohya, two and half years after construction.
Topics: Coating Materials
 

New Performance Requirements for Seismic Steel

Written by Clark Hyland on May 1st, 2008.      0 comments

Amendment 2 of the Steel Structures Standard NZS 3404:1997 released in October 2007 (SNZ, 2007) sets new requirements for steel materials and welding of seismic resisting steelwork that is required to sustain significant plastic deformation under design earthquake events. These changes relate to the selection of steel materials in Table 12.4 and the selection of welding consumables and weld heat input in cl. 2.6.4.5. In some instances these requirements exceed the provisions in the material supply standards for steel sections to AS/NZS 3679 (SAA/SNZ, 1996), plate to AS/NZS 3678 (SAA/SNZ, 1996) and tube to AS1163 (SAA, 1991) A review of steels currently available in the New Zealand market indicates that most will comply with these requirements.
Topics: Coating Materials
 

Non-Standard Plate and Large Hot Rolled Beam Availability

Written by Allistair Fussel on November 27th, 2007.      0 comments

Bridge construction is a demanding application requiring heavy hot rolled and plate welded sections. These types of sections often fall outside the range of standard sections and plates held by local steel distributors. To aid bridge designers in their choice of materials, information is provided in this article for non-standard plate sizes and large hot rolled I sections, which are available to Japanese Standards.
Topics: Coating Materials
 

Design Yield Stress vs Mill Certificate Yield Stress

Written by Clark Hyland on November 27th, 2007.      0 comments

Occasionally the question is asked as to whether a steel that has been certified to a lower steel supply grade classification eg. G250 can be accepted as complying with a higher grade such as G300 on the basis that the Mill Test Certificate associated with its batch has a higher yield and ultimate tensile strength than the minimum required for the higher grade. The answer revolves around the issue of confidence levels in the materials properties derived from large and small statistical samples.
Topics: Coating Materials
 

Steel Availability in New Zealand

Written by Clark Hyland on November 20th, 2007.      0 comments

There are three main purchase options for structural steel sections and plates in the New Zealand market depending on the project scale. The first and second ex - stock supply options are normally more costly than the third indent supply option because of overhead costs such as handling, storage and financing. Other issues should also be considered such as steel quality levels. Sometimes it is better to pay a little more for quality products from known reputable suppliers rather than risk poor end application performance. Fluctuations in demand and supply around the world can affect availability and price.
Topics: Coating Materials
 
   
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